Our investigation is focused on the study of human age-related diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and their association to mitochondrial dysfunction. To this aim, we use visceral adipose tissue from obese patients to tackle two different processes previously related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction: aging, a physiological situation, and T2DM, a severe obesity-associated pathology. Additionally, we are aware that women and men display different outcomes under these disorders. Thus, we are interested in deciphering the influence of gender in obesity and comorbidities. By using cutting-edge proteomic techniques, we investigate not only the protein abundance changes that take place in the adipocyte mitochondrial proteomes, but also the dynamic redox alterations undergone by protein Cys residues. These approaches encompass differential alkylation of reduced and reversibly oxidized Cys (FASILOX), isobaric labelling (iTRAQ) and HPLC-MS/MS together with a robust statistical framework.